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INTRODUCTORY ESSAY. 147
laya. The forests on the slopes of the higher hills are less
luxuriant than in Bahar, and consist of fewer species; but
Mimusops Indica, Bassia latifolia, Cochlospermum Gossypium,
Ailanthus excelsa, and the Teak, have here their northern limit,
as well as Oosalis sensitiva, Sutera glandulosa, and Trichodesma
Zeylanicum, amoijg herbaceous plants. The limited extent of
the flora shows the dryness of the climate, which is also indi-
cated by the occurrence of a few shrubby species typical of the
dry. flora: these are, Capparis aphylla (Sodada of Forskal),
Niebuhria oblongifolia, AltJi&a Ludivigii, Balanites JEgypti-
aca, Alhagi Maurorum, Salvia pumila, and Tecoma vndulafa.
Several of these however occur equally in the Dekhan, so that
the Sindhian and,Arabian types arc very few. No palms are
indigenous, and Mr. Edgeworth's liat includes very few ferns,
and only one epiphytical orchid.
Under this name we propose to include the whole of Cen-
tral India, from Mandlah and Saugor to the borders of Gujc-
rat. It thus comprises the whole of the basin of the Ncrbada
east of Gujerat, as well as the higher pafts of the Vindhia
hills to the north of that river, and is bounded on the south
by Kbandesh and Berar, on the north by llajwara and Ban-
delkhand, on the west by Gujerat, and on the cast by Biihnr.
The Nerbada rises on the table-land of Umcrkantuk, the
elevation of which is variously estimated at 3300—1300. or
even more, feet. In the upper part of its course the river
flows among lew ranges of hills on the surface of the platform.
Below Jabalpur its valley forms a deep excavation in the ge-
neral level of the table-land of Central India, and is bounded
on both sides by rugged hills, which often hem in the river
pretty closely. The Satpura range on the south has u mean
elevation of about 1800 feet, and the Yindhia, on the north,
is only a very little more elevated j at Jabalpur the elevation of
the bed of the river is 1-1-50 feet, and at Maudl&ir it is 700.
To the north of the lower Ncrbada ia situated the basin of